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CASSE stinking Senna alata SENE

CASSIA FISTULA
Cassia occidentalis
Cassia alata
Cassia angustifolia
CASSIA SENNA

CAESALPINIACEAE

There are over 600 species in the genus Cassia trees juqu'aux herbs and sub-shrubs, many are decorative in their leaves and yellow flowers.
These are plants of tropical and subtropical countries, mainly the new world.
They are classified in the family Caeasalpiniaceae associated with Mimosaceae and Fabaceae (formerly Papilionaceae: bean, pea, clover, etc. ..) can be grouped in the superfamily of legumes.


Cassia angustifolia
Cassia senna (Senna)


Herbal Medicine



They are shrubs
small (less than one meter)
zygomorphic flower (see glossary) yellow
and leaves paripinnate,
The fruit is a pod
flattened and leathery,
spontaneously opening and containing
6 to 8 seeds brown.


C. angustifolia is a native of Sudan
and the Horn of Africa, C. senna India.

They are both species of drylands,
semi-desert.











COMPOSITION AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
The leaves and pods of both species have a similar composition.
When they are fresh, just harvested, there are glycosides that drying to 40 ° C dimerize by an enzymatic process and give glycosides (dianthroniques) (see glossary): the sennosides A, B, C, D.

The sennosides A and B are the majority, are anthracénosides (see glossary), compounds derived from anthrone (giving anthraquinone by oxidation) and that found in other plant families important in pharmacology: aloe, rhubarb , buckthorn, cascara, buckthorn.

The fate of these sennosides and related compounds in the gastrointestinal tract is interesting but complex.
They are neither hydrolyzed nor absorbed before reaching the colon where, under the action of intestinal flora, they are hydrolyzed and released anthrones, what are the active forms.
The sennoside is a form of transport to the colon. Curiously the anthrones are ineffective if they are absorbed or hydrolysed open too early (in the small intestine) because they are then excreted in the urine after glucuroconjuguaison liver.
The anthrones affect intestinal motility, enhancing peristalsis left colon and sigmoid while increasing the amount of fluid in the colon by inhibiting the absorption of water, where a powerful laxative which may be cathartic for some or if the amount of sennosides is too important. A direct effect on the mucosa is not rated but work is continuing on the possible toxicity of anthraquinones.

USES
Senna and many preparations which contain are used as a laxative.
You can use the leaflets and pods dry (without seeds) infusion: 5 to 20 grams per liter, a cup at night.
There are also powder and senna extract (sennosides A and B, calcium sennosides).
We estimate the effective daily dose of 25 mg sennosides calculated.
There is a mother tincture (see glossary) of C. angustifolia, 50 drops per day.

There is always a time lag of several hours between the intake of senna and its laxative effect is of course due to the time necessary to arrive in the colon and to be transformed by bacteria before acting really.

phytothérapie

CAUTION

Laxatives, senna and particularly, are not without dangers and drawbacks, their use should be short, not more than 10 days, and reasoned: ineffectiveness of laxatives or other means of regulating digestion: diet, mucilaginous, salt, and choleretic stomachic. The use of senna is also contrindiquée in children under 12 years.
Taking prolonged laxative causes "disease laxatives" and a situation of dependency with need for higher doses, the opposite of the desired effect.
Finally, this type of laxative alters the composition of electrolytes in the colon including excretion and thus a leakage of potassium, where the risk of drug interaction with hypokalemia or products whose action is modified by hypokalemia: digitalis diuretics, steroids, certain antibiotics, anti-arrhythmic.
Nevertheless, senna is used worldwide, global production was estimated at more than 5,000 tons in 1986.

Cassia occidentalis (stinking break)


Herbal Medicine


phytothérapie


This is a sub shrub
native to tropical America
but widespread in many tropical countries,
leaves compound bipinnate
(4 to 6 pairs of leaflets)
yellow flowers
and cloves to a pointed apex,
seeds are brown.
Very common (West Indies)
in waste places, edges of roads around the fences.





Resistant to drought, it is not consumed by animals and sometimes it's one of the few surviving plants in places over-grazed. It covers various common names: stinking break, coffee bastard, false Kinkeliba.

COMPOSITION AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
The leaves contain little but Anthracene derivatives of flavonoids (see glossary) in abundance (vitexin).
A toxalbumin is present in fresh seeds and in roots, there are derivatives of the type anthrones chrysophanol or anthraquinone in the older roots.

The leaves are febrifuge (see glossary) and causes profuse sweating, and they also increase diuresis and slightly laxative.
The root is diuretic and laxative a bit more than the leaves.
Once the seeds are roasted as a coffee substitute, the toxic components are destroyed by roasting, but there is no caffeine or stimulant substance in this "coffee bastard".

USES
The C. occidentalis is not part of the European Pharmacopoeia.

In Africa and the Caribbean was considered a good febrifuge and diaphoretic:

* Infusion of leaves, 60 g of leaves in a quart of boiling water,
10 minutes to brew a cup morning and evening
* Decoction (see glossary) of leaves, 60 g of leaves in a quart of boiling water, cooking 20 minutes, two cups at bedtime for a laxative effect and a cup morning and evening for a diuretic and anti-inflammatory Urine;
* External use, the decoction is antipruritic (see glossary) and the root Tinctures useful friction in the rheumatic pains.




Cassia alata (Senna alata or golden ears)


Herbal Medicine myrtle



phytothérapie myrthe

It is a very ornamental shrub recognizable by its beautiful yellow flowers in erect spikes that can reach 30 cm long.



Native to tropical America
it was widespread in all warm regions of the world;
it became escape from cultivation in many places, growing easily in the wastelands and open areas.



COMPOSITION AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
All plant parts contain anthracénosides (derivatives of rhein and anthraquinone) in an amount greater than Senna officinalis (see above)
The Senna alata is potentially a powerful purgative but rather its properties antimycotic antibiotics and pesticides that have been recognized.

USES
It is a panacea, in poor countries to treat various skin diseases: Exzema superinfected, tropical ulcers, Tinea (fungal skin), skin parasites superinfected.

It applies to injuries:

* The juice of the leaves chopped and pressed in with no lemon juice,
* A paste prepared by mixing the powder of dried leaves and water or grease, oil or petroleum jelly.

Traditional practitioners recommend good rub fungal lesions with this paste.
The infusion of leaves is laxative: 8 leaves in a quart of boiling water, one to two cups per day.


Cassia fistula (golden shower tree or breakage)


Herbal Medicine myrtle



This tree is native to India;
The yellow flowers are large in hanging racemes, very decorative.




The golden shower tree has been introduced in many countries
as well as ornamental
for mild laxative properties of the sweet pulp surrounding the seeds in long pods hanging (50 cm to 1 m).




COMPOSITION AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
The pod looks like a cylinder 2 to 4 cm in diameter, flattened seeds and pulp yellow brown to blackish when mature, rich in pectin and mucilage (see glossary), contains 0.2 to 3% of anthracene derivatives and components similar to the sennosides A and B of Senna.
The pulp is laxative but more gently than the true senna.
All plant parts contain anthracénosides (derivatives of rhein and anthraquinone) in an amount greater than Senna officinalis (see above)
The Senna alata is potentially a powerful purgative but rather its properties antimycotic antibiotics and pesticides that have been recognized.

USES

* Infusion: 40 g pulp in 1 / 2 liters of boiling water for 10 minutes and two cups in the morning or evening depending on the person (depending on the speed of reaction of the digestive system)
* In jam: One tablespoon in the morning, you can combine the tamarind (see tamarind) in the same jam.

CAREFUL, the remarks on the use of laxatives Anthracene (see senna) are also valid for the golden shower tree while it is softer (low concentration of active substances and presence of mucilage).

1 Responses to CASSE stinking Senna alata SENE CASSIA FISTULA Cassia occidentalis Cassia alata Cassia angustifolia CASSIA SENNA CAESALPINIACEAE

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