Publié par happy-diet samedi 20 mars 2010


Hypericum perforatum


Hypericum is a genus that includes several hundred species of herbaceous or shrubby (over 400) spread in all temperate regions of Asia, Europe and the Americas.
Some species of Hypericum were introduced to Australia where they are considered invasive.

Hypericum perforatum, the real wort, is a small perennial herb, 20 to 90 cm, very common in Europe, which are found in well sunny, dry wastelands, fallow, edges of paths and roads.
St. John's wort The stem is reddish, leaves ovate, opposite and sessile, give the appearance of being riddled with small holes (mile sluice: sluice hole = orifice passage old French).

They are actually small glandular organ, more or less transparent, which contain an essential oil.
We note the black dots on the undersides of leaves.
When you crush the leaves between his fingers, they stain red.
St. John's wort flowers in terminal cymes, are pentamerous, bright yellow (dotted black), turning to rust when they fade. The stamens are very numerous, are grouped into 3 beams. The fruit of Hypericum perforatum is a capsule which opens into three parts. St. John's wort, Hypericum perforatum, is in full bloom in early summer, the grass of St. John, St John's wort in English.
Hypericum perforatum hybridizes easily with related species (barbatum, maculatum, montanum etc. ..) So we quite often encounter the types of intermediaries millepertuis


St. John's wort contains:

* Compounds found in many plants: 4 to 5% of flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, kaemférol, luteolin), carotenoids, a lot of tannins (10% dry weight)
* Other pharmacologically interesting phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid and other acids, phenols, phloroglucinol derivatives (including hyperforin) of xanthones
* 0.1% essential oil (pinene, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons)
* Naphthodianthrones of which are characteristic of this plant are condensed aromatic molecules and oxygen (quinone) responsible for the reddish color that appears when you crush the leaves: hypericin, pseudohypericin and related compounds.

Hypericin is a natural substance powerful photo-sensitizer. According to chemists, it absorbs visible and UV radiation and becomes phototoxic by releasing highly reactive free radicals (singlet oxygen), and I quote: "there is a proton transfer photoinduced from the first triplet state.
In practice, if one applies the "juice" reddish Hypericum perforatum on the delicate skin or skin eroded and that it is exposed to the sun, we risk the appearance of erythema (redness and pain ), even blistering and micronécroses. Phototoxic potency of St. John's wort may induce serious disturbances in herbivores that consume large quantities.
Hypericin has antiviral activity against viruses "encapsulated", eg herpes, hepatitis B, cytomegalovirus, certain viruses causing respiratory "flu", retroviruses (including the AIDS virus (HIV)) and many others virus. The power antiviral hypericin has been studied in vitro and in animals, trials in humans (AIDS) have been abandoned (to my knowledge).

Pharmacologists can not precisely determine the substances responsible for the pharmacological properties of Hypericum perforatum, St. John's Wort.

Hypericum perforatum has indeed a lot of interesting properties:

* Mood changes: sedative, anxiolytic, antidepressant
* Anti-inflammatory (flavonoids + essential oil)
* Antibacterial and antiviral (including flavonoids, hyperforin and hypericin)
* Antiseptic, astringent and healing (flavonoids and tannins)
* Analgesic
* Regulator of liver function (activation of certain enzymes: enzymes of all cytochrome P450) and gastric
* Respiratory stimulant balsamic

Hypericum perforatum, St. John's wort, mood stabilizer,
anxiolytic and antidepressant

St. John's wort, Hypericum, is best known currently as a medicinal plant anti-depressive and sedative.
For fifteen years there have been many studies on the antidepressant power of Hypericum. The results were erratic, even contradictory, but studies often biased. Indeed, the sponsors of such surveys are generally laboratories, pro-or anti hypericum, involved in trade in psychotropic drugs. The latest results and confirm the most independent power antidepressants Hypericum extracts in humans in cases of mild and moderate depression.
These studies also show the interest of St. Johns Wort to fight against insomnia and improve sleep quality. Long ago, pharmacologists considered extracts of Hypericum as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), but now they lean more to an inhibitory action on the uptake of neurotransmitters at neuronal synapses: serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. We know the important role of serotonin in regulating mood.


St. John's wort, Hypericum, can be taken:

* Infusion of the fresh plant or dried: 100 g to 150 g of fresh plant or 25 to 50 g of dried plant in a liter of water. This infusion is astringent enough constipated
* Infused in the oil: 500 g of Hypericum in a liter of vegetable oil (olive, for example) to put in the sun for several days or heat gently for 2-3 hours, filter and store the dark in a tightly stoppered
* In mother tincture if possible fresh plant
* Extract fluid
* Cryobroyée in plant or plant powder
* In nébulisât
* The form of extracts assayed in hypericin or hyperforin

It is easy to trade in pharmaceutical products containing St John's Wort or Hypericum

Depression, obsessive compulsive disorder
Example of dose
Hypericum perforatum: dying mother if possible fresh plant, 50 drops 3 times daily Hypericum perforatum: drops or capsules, extracts standardized Hypericin (0.3%, or 250 to 500 mcg of total hypericin per capsule) or hyperforin ( 1 to 3%): 300 to 400 mg of standardized extracts 2 to 3 times per day or standardized capsules, 2 to 3 times per day

Sleep disorders, premenstrual syndrome, smoking cessation
Example of dose

* Drugs standardized hypericin or hyperforin: 200 to 300 mg of extracts of Hypericum
* Hypericum powder cryobroyée: 1g or two capsules per day
* Hypericum mother tincture: 30 drops 3 times per day or 50 drops at night
* St. John's Wort Infusion: 2 to 4 cups per day

Painful wounds of the hand and fingers, second degree burns, infected wounds and painful

These indications are more traditional and older. You can use the infusion, decoction or St. John's Wort Oil St. John's wort. Recent studies have shown that St. John's wort was active on strains of staph resistant to antibiotics and promote healing. We must protect the treated part of sunlight.

Neuralgic pain
This indication of the St. John's wort oil is quite old. It is applied in massage on the painful areas or on the bottom of the spine and the sciatic nerve in chronic pain sciatica type of subacute

Recent work has explored the possibility of using hypericin concentrated followed by exposure to bright light, to eliminate dyskeratosis, cancer Basal cell skin and even some melanomas are difficult to operate.

Contraindications and DRUG INTERACTIONS
St. John's wort, Hypericum perforatum is so far not recommended for children and pregnant or lactating women, although recent studies, but on too few subjects, have revealed no problems in pregnancy or breastfeeding. Extracts of St. John's wort increases the activity of certain liver enzymes which are dedicated to detoxify the body, but also accelerate the degradation of many molecules, including some important drugs, but used by few people.

Include a few of them:

* Protease inhibitors and inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (AIDS treatment);
* Cyclosporine (immune inhibitor used in the prevention of graft rejection);
* Oral anticoagulants (anticoagulant);
* Some medications used to treat cancer and to a lesser extent
* Some antibiotics;
* Statins (cholesterol);
* The pill contraception and other hormones (estrogen and cortisol);
* Theophylline (treatment of asthma).
* Digoxin (heart failure) also sees its altered metabolism, perhaps by modifying its intestinal absorption

Most people can use St. Johns Wort (Reminder: unless those who use antiretrovirals, cyclosporine, anticoagulants, or digitalis)
Extracts of St. John's wort interact with synthetic antidepressants (such as "Prozac", MAOI or tricyclic) must move smoothly from one treatment to another.

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