Publié par happy-diet mardi 16 mars 2010

The leaves contain:

* A dozen alkaloids (derivatives of ecgonine) whose content varies between 0.5 and 1.5%, constituting the majority (30 to 50%) was cocaine (methylbenzoilecgonine) is a substance of low molecular weight (303.4), soluble in water, alcohol, ether and some oils and petroleum derivatives, is an alkaloid ester, volatile at the ground state.
The rate of cocaine varies in the day, a study shows it is stronger in the morning and late afternoon (respectively in the study: 7 and 9 mg per g dry weight). Once harvested, the leaves are quickly dried as cocaine disappears very quickly if fermentation.
* A little essential oil
* Carbohydrates (starch, dextrin, cellulose and sugars), and a little protein.
They have some nutritional value (about 3 calories per gram)

In a market village in Bolivia

There are other species of Erythroxylum, in a study of 51 species from Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Mexico, USA, Venezuela, Mauritius, there that contain a lot of cocaine and that the species Erythroxylum laetevirens owns a rate similar to coca cultivation.
Botanists believe that cocaine and other alkaloids neighbors protect the plant against insects.
The coca leaf chewed anesthesia causes a slight lining of the mouth and stomach. The effect on the nervous system is much weaker than that of pure cocaine.

Depending on the amount of cocaine ingested, the effects experienced are:

* Local anesthesia of the mouth and gums
* Mild euphoria and temporary disappearance of fatigue and hunger.
* Increased heart rate and blood pressure, mydriasis (pupil enlarges)

Cocaine is indeed a local anesthetic and sympathomimetic he is blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine and therefore, initially, adrenergic stimulation (intellectual stimulation, euphoria, increased body heat, phenomena of local vasoconstriction) followed by a depressing effect on the nervous system (following inhibition of reuptake), with a feeling of mental and physical fatigue. Toxicologists say that cocaine does not induce physical dependence, but very quickly against a strong psychological dependence.


Patties ash plant market in Bolivia

The leaves of E. Coke is used as a stimulant in the western part of South America. For centuries the Indians of the Andes chew coca (average 60 g per day for a regular), often mixed with plant ash (ashes of the quinoa and certain roots of cactus, sometimes mixed with the potato starch land) or lime (the lime or potash ash chemical release promotes cocaine).
In fact the leaves are chewed for the grind and they are then stored as a quid on the side of the mouth, saliva absorbs the juice of chewing tobacco which contains cocaine alkaloid penetrates also through the oral mucosa directly into the bloodstream it is the most common use.
The coca leaf is smoked but also much rarer.

In South America we consume now routinely coca tea (mate de coca), it is sold already prepared as tea bags (like tea normal) containing about 1g leaf. One study showed that the alkaloid content of the tea bags was variable, but was around 5 mg of cocaine, and between 0.1 and 3 mg for the other alkaloids significant (benzoyl ecgonine, methyl ecgonine, cinnamoylcocaine); the consumption of a cup of coca tea would correspond to this study after ingestion of approximately 4 mg of cocaine, cocaine metabolites are excreted in urine, a urine test can then be positive for cocaine.

Coca chewing is a habit deeply rooted in Indian populations of the Andes, particularly among miners and rural residents; in Peru and Bolivia, it is not forbidden to cultivate coca, but the surfaces of crops are in theory controlled and limited. There are coca-counter (by weight) in all markets and in many shops.
Specialists believe that the drug this way of eating is not too "dangerous" but there is a risk of psychological addiction and switch to the use of pure cocaine when it is available in the country.

Other uses:

* There is currently no longer uses the coca leaf and its derivatives dosage in Western medicine;
for the story, remember that the "Coca Cola" originally contained (1892) extracts of coca leaves and cocaine, therefore, its "inventor," the American Pemberton had stolen the idea Franco Mariani Italian-marketed since 1863 that a "tonic wine" on coca, the formula of "coca cola" remained unchanged for ten years, in 1903 it withdrew the coca coca cola.

* The coca leaf is often recommended in South America to combat the effects of "altitude sickness" or "soroche" physiological disorder involving headaches, palpitations, feeling sick, loss of appetite and sleep disturbances. The "soroche" may occur for a few days with new arrivals beyond 3000 m altitude.

Local people use the coca leaf as medicine:

* To anesthetize the mouth in cases of ulcers, toothache or gum inflammation;
* In severe cases non-infectious as "spasmolytic" and astringent.

Clinical signs of poisoning by the coca leaf:
The manifestations of poisoning depend on the amount ingested, and the patient's addiction to cocaine: minimum, euphoria, excitement, agitation, loss of fatigue, physical performance increased, better resistance to the effort, if the dose is higher, some hallucinations are possible with tachycardia, mydriasis, hypertension and sometimes abdominal pain by nervous system disorders (depression): breathing becomes irregular, there may be convulsions or coma and cardio - Vascular serious and can cause death.

In cases of acute poisoning:
Remove leaves the mouth clean and if possible encourage vomiting (with syrup of ipecac for example), unless the person is unconscious or convulsing.

Chronic poisoning causes a decreased sensitivity of the oral mucosa, local irritation by chewing leaves and vasoconstrictors induced phenomena can cause mouth ulcers, there is weight loss, emotional disturbances and a possible deterioration of mental faculties.

The cultivation of coca and transporting coca leaves are banned by international conventions unless specific exemptions.
The drug "cocaine" (cocaine hydrochloride) and other substances derived from coca leaves (coca paste, cocaine "base", "crack") is strictly prohibited in most countries.

0 commentaires

Enregistrer un commentaire

Blog Archive