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CANDIDA -

Publié par happy-diet vendredi 14 mai 2010

CANDIDA -
Noun: An infection by the fungus Candida Albicans, also known as thrush. It most commonly affects the vagina but also affects other areas of mucous membrane, such as inside the mouth or moist skin.

The growth of Candida is kept under control by the bacteria usually present in these organs. If antibiotic drugs destroy too many of the friendly bacteria, or the bodies resistance to infection is lowered, the fungus may multiply excessively. Apart from the drugs which are prescribed to handle this, health food stores sell Acidophilus and Bifido complex which are the friendly bacteria which can help restore control of the fungus again once the course of antibiotics are finished. Live yoghurt also contains these friendly bacteria.

Latin - candidus = white

CANNULA -
Noun: A hollow tube for insertion into the body by which fluids are introduced or removed. When you have a blood transfusion , a plastic cannula is inserted into your arm. With it blood can be given easily.

Latin - cannula = reed, pipe, cane

CATHETER -
Noun: A tubular, flexible instrument, passed through body channels used to drain or inject fluid, or apply pressure to a vessel.

Greek - kata = down

Greek - hiénai = let or send

CBC -
Noun: An abbreviation for complete blood count. This determines whether the proper number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are present in the patients blood.

CENTRAL LINE -
Noun: A central venous catheter

CHELATION THERAPY -
Noun: Originally a treatment used for the removal of lead from the system of a patient. It is a procedure which consists of a series of intravenous infusions each lasting a few hours. In patients who receive many blood transfusions there is a build up of iron which the body cannot eliminate. This can cause organ damage if not handled. The process to specifically eliminate the excess iron uses a drug called Desferal , and the Chelation Therapy. One could also have Chelation Therapy using another chemical called EDTA which has no record of causing allergy. The EDTA will bind to and eliminate many common toxic metal pollutants such as lead, cadmium, aluminium and mercury. There are reports that it can also lower the levels of excess iron so it is worth looking into if the Desferal causes problems.

Greek - chele = claw + (as in clawing back the minerals)
English - ate = ending used to form a noun

CHROMOSOME -
Noun: Any one of the rod-shaped bodies found in the nucleus of a cell that appear when the cell divides. Chromosomes are derived from the parents and carry the genes that determine heredity, controlling the development of the organism and determining its nature. See Mitosis for picture.

Greek - chroma = colour
Greek - sóma = body

CHRONIC -
Adjective: A term describing a disorder or set of symptoms that has persisted for a long time. With GVHD the time specified is over 100 days. Chronic disorders are usually contrasted with acute ones (of sudden onset and short in duration). In addition to the difference in duration between the two, the term acute suggests the presence of symptoms such as high fever, severe pain, or breathlessness, with a rapid change in the patient's condition from one day to the next. By contrast, a person with a chronic infection shows little change in symptoms from day to day and may be able, with some difficulty, to carry out his or her daily activities.

CHRONIC GVHD -
Noun: Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease. See Acute GVHD for full definition.

CLASS 1 TISSUE TYPING -
Noun: This is a procedure of examining the genetic markers on the surface of white blood cells called the HLA - antigens (Human leukocyte antigens). These antigens help the body identify invading organisms, and trigger an immune system attack on any substances that do not belong in that particular person's body, such as viruses and bacteria.

If the patient's and donor's HLA-antigens do not match, the patient's body will perceive the donor's bone marrow as foreign material to be destroyed. The new white blood cells being produced by the new bone marrow will also see the patient's body as something to be destroyed. These conditions are called graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease and both result in a failed bone marrow transplant .

There are two levels of determining the HLA genetic markers. This is Class 1 Tissue typing which gives 3 categories which identify where the tested genes are on the chromosomes, the 'A' locus , 'B' locus, and "C" or 'Cw' locus. This would be done first to determine prospective donors. There are 22 different 'A' locus antigens, 42 different 'B' antigens and 9 different Cw antigens.

If these match, then the Class 2 Tissue typing would be done to further ensure as close a match as possible. This has the HLA category of 'DR' and within that category there is also 'DQ' and 'DP'. There are 18 different 'DR' antigens. The number of combinations is vast but unrelated people with identical combinations occur at a rate of 1 in 50,000. Brothers and sisters at a rate of 1 in 4.

Lymphocytes will attack all cells that do not have the correctly matching antigens which is why it is vital to get as close a match as possible.

Although both the Class 1 and the Class 2 Tissue typing may be a perfect match, it is preferable to have the matching bone marrow from a brother or sister. The reason for this is that there are many other aspects in the genes which are not tested for or perhaps not even known about which if from an unrelated source may be completely unmatched. From a brother or sister, if the match is good on the Class 1 and 2, the chances of the untested and unknown genetic material matching is better resulting in a much less chance of GVHD being serious. We know this as the GVHD occurs with those that have perfectly matched bone marrow from a stranger much more frequently than it does with perfectly matched bone marrow from a family member.

CLASS 2 TISSUE TYPING -
Noun: Another procedure for examining the genetic markers on the surface of white blood cells called the HLA - antigens (Human leukocyte antigens). This results in a category with 'D' numbers specifying another set of genetic markers on the chromosomes.

See Class 1 Tissue Typing for a more complete definition.

CLEAN DIET -
Noun: As a result of AA or MDS and particularly during or after immunosuppressive or the bone marrow transplant treatments you are much less able to fight infections. One way that you can get an infection is through your food. The foods most likely to cause problems are raw or partially cooked meat, unpasteurised milk (green top), raw or partially cooked eggs, soft cheeses, blue cheeses, patés, salad, ready to eat poultry, cooked chilled foods (if the instructions are not followed properly), Chinese or Indian takeaways, and any food with mould growing on it. Other foods may become contaminated because of poor hygiene. Also dirty dishcloths, tea towels, or poor personal hygiene. See section on Clean Diet

COAGULATION -
Noun: The process where blood changes from a liquid to a thickened mass. Platelets play a large roll in enabling our blood to coagulate which prevents us from excessively bleeding, bruising, and haemorrhaging . With aplastic anaemia or myelodysplasia , the production of platelets is very low and one has to be aware that their blood will not coagulate properly and to be careful not to cause teeth to bleed, avoid cuts and heavy bumps and bangs. Also when you go to the toilet, observe the urine to see if it is reddish and the stools to see if they are blackish, both indicating internal bleeding. Report either immediately to your doctor.

Verb: coagulate

Latin - coagulum = a curdling

COMPLEMENT -
Noun: Complement is an important immune agent which is a combination of eleven protein enzymes that circulate in the blood and act as catalysts in antibody - antigen reactions. When an invader appears, an antibody recognizes the antigen (foreign cell) and binds with it to form a complex which then fixes complement on the surface of the foreign cell where the first complement enzymatic reaction then take place. The complement releases its first enzyme; then the next one is released until all eleven enzymes are used up. Each reaction has a particular function. For example, one step dilates blood vessels while another destroys the walls of bacteria. Another attracts phagocytes to the site of inflammation and cause them to be very voracious eaters.

Latin - com = up +
Latin - plere = fill

CONTRACTURE -
Noun: A shortening of the muscle, skin and other soft tissue, usually in the limbs. They may restrict movement of joints. A contracture may occur in patients with GVHD .

Latin - com = together
Latin - trahere = draw (as in to pull)

CONTRAINDICATIONS -
Noun: Any factor in a patient's condition that makes it unwise to pursue a certain line of treatment - such as drug therapy or surgery. Drugs often have contraindications on the bottle or on a leaflet that goes with the bottle.

Latin - contra = against
Latin - in - into, on, or upon
Latin - dicere = to speak

CORPUSCLE -
Noun: Any of the cells that form a large part of the blood and lymph .

Adjective: Corpuscular - of or having to do with corpuscles.

Latin - corpus = body

CORTICOSTEROIDS -
Noun: A group of steroids, many of them hormones, which are produced by the adrenal cortex glands of the body, which improve metabolism and help with stress. Some break down proteins and prevent infection. Given in high doses, a corticosteroid drug such as Prednisolone , reduces inflammation that ALG treatment may cause, by blocking the action of chemicals called " prostaglandins " that are responsible for triggering the inflammatory response.

A corticosteroid drug may also act on the brain to produce a heightened sense of well-being and happiness. In some people, it can cause the opposite condition. Long-term use of corticosteroids suppresses the production of the body's own corticosteroid hormones. For this reason, treatment that lasts for more than a few weeks must be withdrawn gradually to give your body a chance to adjust and start producing it's own. If the drug is stopped abruptly, the lack of corticosteroid hormones may lead to a sudden emotional collapse. This is temporary as the adrenal glands soon begins producing it again.

Use of this drug in standard doses eases the side effects of the ALG treatment but they do not have any effect on the aplastic anaemia or myelodysplasia .

Patients with aplastic anaemia are particularly vulnerable to damage to large joints which may result from steroid treatment.

Latin - corticis = bark +
English - ster(ol) = one of a group of solid alcohols such as cholesterol, present in animal and plant tissue +
Greek - oeides = in the form of

CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE -
Noun: A drug used to treat cancers and to suppress the rejection of transplanted tissue. It basically kills off all the white cells . It is the drug of choice for those having a Bone Marrow Transplant.

Cyclophosphamide commonly causes nausea, vomiting and hair loss and can affect the heart, lungs and liver. It can also cause severe bladder damage in susceptible people because it produces a toxic substance called acrolein (a colourless liquid with an irritating odour and used in chemical warfare as a tear gas). Another drug may be given before and after each dose of cyclophosphamide to reduce its toxicity. Inform your doctor if you find it painful to pass urine while you are on this drug. It can also lead to abnormal bleeding due to lowered blood cells, and increased risk of infection and reduced fertility in men. Drink lots of water while taking this drug. This will usually prevent it from causing bladder irritation.

CYCLOSPORINE -
Noun: A drug used with ATG / ALG treatment to further suppress the immune system by inhibiting the activity of only the T lymphocytes . It is also used in bone marrow transplants to help handle GVHD . It also decreases the body's ability to fight off infections.

It can have a number of side effects which should be known.

Very serious

Seek immediate medical attention if any of these symptoms occur:

  • blood in urine
  • chills
  • fever
  • increased urge to urinate

Serious

  • confusion
  • nervousness
  • unusual weakness or tiredness
  • difficulty breathing
  • shortness of breath
  • tender, enlarged, or bleeding gums
  • nausea or vomiting
  • stomach pain (severe)
  • irregular heartbeat
  • convulsions
  • numbness

Minor

These effects need no attention unless they become annoying:

  • headache
  • leg cramps
  • trembling or shaking of the hands
  • acne
  • increased body hair

The British Medical Association and an article from healthcentral.com state that when taking cyclosporine, one should avoid eating excessive amounts of foods high in potassium such as bananas, oranges, orange juice, milk, waffles, oatmeal, tomatoes, and baked beans. Also according to an article in the April 5 2000 issue of JAMA , there are some reports that the herb St. John's Wort causes significant changes in the patients response to cyclosporine. In following this up I found it was 2 patients whose heart transplants had worked smoothly for a year and who began taking St. John's Wort. Their bodies quickly started rejecting their new hearts. The supposition is that the herb sped up their bodies' normal removal of cyclosporine.

A warning on the Cyclosporin drug package says to avoid grapefruit juice as it may block the breakdown of cyclosporine by the liver (the opposite problem to the above). If this happens, blood levels of cyclosporine could be increased and this could increase serious side effects. Avoid drinking any product with grapefruit juice.

Inform your doctor if you are taking any supplements, home remedies or other medical prescriptions to avoid any problems.

CYTOGENIC -
Adjective: 1. characterised by the formation of cells. 2. producing cells.

Greek - kytos = anything hollow
Greek - genês = born or something produced

CYTOKINES -
Noun: Hormone like proteins secreted by cells such as interferon , lymphokines and interleukins which regulate their proliferation (reproduction by cell division) and function. All the T-cells and other leukocytes communicate with one another by secreting one or another of these chemical messengers.

Greek - kytos = anything hollow
Greek - kineín = to move

CYTOPENIA -
Noun: A condition where there is no formation of cells or a reduced level of the formation of cells. A person with aplastic anaemia has a form of cytopenia.

Greek - kytos = anything hollow + penia = poverty

CYTOTOXIN -
Noun: A toxin or antibody having a specific harmful effect on certain cells.

Adjective: Cytotoxic

Greek - kytos = anything hollow
Greek - toxicón = poison (originally for use on arrows - tóxon = bow)

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