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Type 2 Diabetes: What's this?

Publié par happy-diet dimanche 23 mai 2010

Type 2 Diabetes: What's this?

Diabetes Type II Schematic
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body becomes unable to regulate blood sugar, that is to say, glucose or "sugar" in the blood. This disease affects more adults who are obese or overweight.

In someone with type 2 diabetes, glucose concentration above normal values. In the long term, if blood glucose is not lowered by treatment, it can cause serious health problems.

This chronic disease requires a personalized treatment and close monitoring by the patient and medical team. The healthy lifestyle are the mainstay of treatment. If needed, medication can be used. Since insulin injections are rarely necessary, it also gave him the name of diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), as opposed to type 1 diabetes.
A disease progression

The number of people with type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly worldwide over the last decade and continues to do so. In Canada, in 2008, 8.6% of people aged 45 to 64 years reported having been diagnosed with diabetes, compared to 6.8% in 2003. Among those 65 and older, prevalence rose from 13.5% in 2003 to 16% in 2008. It is estimated that type 2 diabetes accounts for at least 90% of cases of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes usually occurs after the age of 40 years, but now reaching more and more children and adolescents.

The diet rich in fats and sugars and physical inactivity are factors that contribute most to this phenomenon because they cause excess weight. Over time, the accumulation of fat in the organs due to insulin resistance. This resistance to insulin is the first step toward type 2 diabetes.

Be aware that insulin is the "key" that allows the muscles and liver, for example, to absorb glucose (sugar), a major source of energy. In a person resistant to insulin, the key not working well or at all. Thus, the glucose stays in the blood and the blood glucose rises gradually. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas. At first, to compensate for this resistance to insulin, the pancreas begins to produce more. However, over time, the pancreas becomes exhausted. Consequently, insulin secretion decreases and, in some cases completely stop.

Type 2 diabetes is the result of two phenomena: first a resistance to insulin, then the exhaustion of the pancreas.
Diagnosis

As type 2 diabetes is not accompanied symptoms in its early stages it is often discovered incidentally in a routine medical examination.

Blood glucose monitoring can detect: a fasting glucose test or random and, sometimes, a glucose tolerance test. This test is a blood sugar reading 2 hours after ingesting a sweet juice containing 75 g of glucose.

Even if the results are normal, there is usually recommended to take these exams at regular intervals to detect the disease early.
Complications

For information on acute complications (hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, caused by the adjustment of treatment hyperosmolar syndrome hyperglycemia in diabetic untreated), see our fact sheet Diabetes (Overview).

In the long term, many diabetics see their health deteriorate because of their illness, especially if the diabetes is not well controlled and monitored. High blood sugar may include a chronic cause of irreversible vision loss, pain due to nerve damage, heart disease and kidney failure. For more information, please see our fact sheet Diabetes Complications.

Symptoms


Initially, the person has no or few symptoms. It is therefore an insidious form of diabetes may go unnoticed for years. Some people may experience symptoms caused by hyperglycemia, are more similar to those of type 1 diabetes.

* A frequent desire to urinate, especially at night. The kidneys produce more urine to try to eliminate the excess glucose in the blood.
* Increased thirst and hunger.
* A loss of weight.
* An excessive fatigue, which is noticeable especially after meals.
* Blurred vision.

Note. More frequent infections, slow healing of wounds or loss of sensitivity feet are some signs of possible complications. It is then necessary to consult his doctor. See also our fact sheet Diabetes Complications.

People at risk


* People with a first degree relative (mother, father, brother or sister) with diabetes type 2.
* People who are overweight, especially when body fat is concentrated in the abdomen rather than the hips and thighs. Indeed, fat lodged in the abdominal organs (especially liver) is one that affects the function of insulin.

Risk Factors


* Having a sedentary lifestyle and consuming excess calories. In 80% of type 2 diabetes, excess weight contributed to the onset of the disease.
* Having had gestational diabetes or having given birth to a baby weighing over 4 kg.
* Have a metabolic syndrome. In the clinic, the doctor will evaluate the following factors (three are enough for diagnosis):
- Abdominal obesity, determined by measuring waist circumference;
- High levels of triglycerides;
- Low blood levels of HDL, a good type of cholesterol;
- Hypertension (60% of diabetics are undiagnosed high blood pressure);
- High blood glucose fasting.

Prevention of type 2 diabetes


Screening Measures

The need for screening in the absence of symptoms will be assessed with the doctor.

Experts believe that the more we detect the disease early - even before symptoms appear - and we intervene early to restore blood glucose, the greater the risk of complications is decreasing (cardiovascular disorders, eye diseases, kidney or neurological disorders, etc. .). There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early intervention.

Here are the recommendations of the Canadian Diabetes Association, referred to in the médecins39:

* Assessing the risk of diabetes in adults should be made by the doctor during the examenannuel.
* A fasting blood glucose test should be undertaken every three years for all adults over 40 years, symptoms or not. This screening should be done more frequently if risk factors have been found. A glucose tolerance test can be done to investigate further or establish the diagnosis.
* The detection of disease in children at high risk every 2 years is recommended.



Basic preventive measures
Weight control, healthy eating and exercise

Overweight has the effect of increasing insulin requirements and overworking the pancreas. This is the body mass index (BMI) which determines the weight a person's health. Calculate your own using our test body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference.

A healthy and varied diet helps maintain a healthy weight. It also helps maintain a stable blood sugar throughout the day, along with a healthy blood pressure. To do this, eat as much as possible 3 meals daily at regular times, avoid the excesses of animal fats and added sugars (glucose, fructose, dextrose, etc..), Focusing on foods rich in fiber. For an overview of basic principles to observe, see our article How to eat well?

Regular physical activity also helps maintain a healthy weight or eliminate excess weight if necessary. In addition, being active makes that insulin acts more efficiently. We generally recommend a minimum of 30-60 minutes of physical activity, ideally every day, if not at least five days a week (brisk walking, swimming, jogging, cycling, etc..). It is important to go gradually, so gradually increase the duration and intensity of the activity. Several short periods can be just as beneficial as continuous periods. For tips on ways to integrate activities into your daily life, please see our Be healthy.



Measures to prevent complications

The daily self-monitoring of blood glucose using a glucose meter and medical monitoring of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in blood (at least 2 times a year) can prevent many complications. The glycosylated hemoglobin reflects the mean glucose during the last 3 months.

The targets aim to reflect good control:

* A blood glucose of 4 mmol / l to 7 mmol / l before meals;
* A glycated hemoglobin level below 7%.

See our fact sheet Preventing Diabetes Complications.


Treatments Medical Diabetes type 2


People with diabetes can expect to live active, independent and dynamic conditions to observe a fairly strict discipline:

- Control of blood glucose using a glucose meter;
- A proper diet;
- A program of physical activity.

For more details on how we live our lives in case of type 2 diabetes, see our fact sheet Diabetes (Overview) where you will find:

- A pattern of glucose uptake;
- A video showing how to use a meter;
- A table of optimal glucose values for adolescents and adults with diabetes;
- A power plan (on this subject, see also our Special Diet sheet: Diabetes).
- Suggestions of physical exercise
- Ways to manage stress.

For some, the assiduous adherence to this lifestyle enough to control blood sugar while for others it will also intervene medically. The goal of treatment is to maintain the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood in the normal range. The means to achieve this differ from one person to another.

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