Publié par happy-diet vendredi 14 mai 2010

Noun: An anti rejection drug used in transplants including bone marrow transplants. It suppresses the immune systems reaction against foreign tissue by inhibiting the activity of the white blood cells. In some cases, tacrolimus has been shown to cause diabetes. Consult your doctor right away if you develop symptoms of increased hunger, thirst and urination while taking this drug. Tacrolimus should not be taken within 24 hours of receiving cyclosporine or taken with grapefruit juice.

T - CELL -
Noun: An abbreviation for T-Lymphocyte Cell. It is a white blood cell produced in the bone marrow or in the Lymph glands which has made its way through the body to the Thymus gland which is located in the chest which is what gives it the name T Cell. There it matures into a type of lymphocyte called a T cell. From here it circulates in the blood, spleen and particularly the lymph glands. The T-cells provide protection against certain bacteria, viruses, and other disease-causing organisms that have already infected a cell and are growing inside the cells of the body. As these foreign bodies are inside our cells multiplying or doing their damage, they are hidden from the antibodies made by the B cells. But the T cells can recognise an infected cell and will attack it and thereby destroy the hidden intruder. The T cells work together with the B cells and the macrophages during an immune response. T cells attract macrophages to the intruder and greatly stimulate the process of phagocytosis . In addition, B cells will produce far more antibodies if the T cells are present. See picture of White blood cell

T-cells are divided into four groups:

Helper T-Cells - (also called TH, T4 or CD4 cells) help other cells destroy infective organisms. They do not attack invading micro-organisms but decide whether it is a threat and whether to switch the immune system on. They can order the B-cells into action. They point out foreign antigens to the B-cells which in turn manufacture a Y shaped protein called an " immunoglobulin " or "antibody". The antibody zeroes in on the antigen and attaches to the surface of the invading cell. The "Aids virus" tends to invade the helper cells, and when the helper cells are no longer functioning, the bodies immune system does not get switched on even though there is a major invasion taking place.

Suppressor T-Cells - (also called TS, T8 or CD8 cells) also do not attack invading micro-organisms but switch off both the B and T lymphocytes attack when an infection has passed and recovery is complete so the aggressive T-cells don't destroy normal tissue.

Killer T-Cells - (also called cytotoxic T lymphocytes, or CTLs), recognise and destroy abnormal or infected cells once it has received permission from a helper T-cell. Most of the body's white cells will recognise other "self" cells and leave them alone but with the assistance of "Helper T cells", Killer T cells seek out and destroy any of the body cells that have hidden micro-organisms within them. Killer T cells use a very strong enzyme against the infected cell to destroy it. The action of Killer T cells stimulates an increase in macrophage activity to clear up the debris.

Natural Killer Cells - (NK) cells are actually primitive T-cells that are free to attack indiscriminately without requiring permission from a helper T-cell. This makes them the immune system's first line of defense. Since they lack receptors for identifying antigens, NK cells work best when their target has first been identified by macrophages and helper T-cells. These cells release the chemical messenger interferon which attracts and stimulates NK cells, causing them to grow larger and more aggressive. NK cells also zero in readily on targets that have already been coated with antibodies such as tumor cells and body cells infected with a virus. NK cells swiftly migrate through the bloodstream to such targets which they immediately kill with their toxic enzymes.

If a patient has AA or MDS , whether immunosuppressive therapy is given or a bone marrow transplant , the T cells will be killed off with drugs as part of the therapy. This will greatly reduce the patients immune system so everything possible must be done to avoid infections.

Noun: A drug which is in the penicillin family. It is used to handle some micro-organisms which other forms cannot. It rarely has any side effects except for rashes in higher doses. THROMBOCYTE -
Noun: A blood platelet .
Greek - thrómbos = a clot +
-cyte = a cell from Greek - kytos = anything hollow.

Noun: An abnormal decrease of thrombocytes (platelets) in the blood. Blood conditions such as AA and MDS result in thrombocytopenia and bleeding, bruising or haemorrhaging may occur.

Greek - thrómbos = a clot +
-cyte = a cell from Greek - kytos = anything hollow. +
Greek - penia = poverty

Noun: The production of platelets. Normal thrombopoiesis would mean that platelet production was normal.

Greek - thrómbos = a clot +
Greek - poieîn = make

Noun: A lymphocyte found in the thymus gland .

Greek - thymos = a warty unnatural growth (referring to the thymus gland which is at the base of the neck and was thought to have no function in adults.
-cyte = a cell from Greek - kytos = anything hollow.

Noun: A small, ductless gland near the base of the neck and above the heart, the thymus is the center for the lymphocyte immune system. During the first few years of life, the thymus programs billions of lymphocytes that have made their way to it from the bone marrow. When programed, they have become T cells , the "T" standing for "Thymus". As the T cells mature in the thymus, they adopt one of four different functions . Each T- cell is programed to recognise one of over a million antigens which exist in the human environment. While in the thymus, T-cells also learn to recognise a set of proteins displayed on the walls of our own body cells which identifies them as self and friendly and not to be attacked. Any T-cell which fails to recognise the self as friendly is killed in the thymus. Yet an occasional one is believed to survive and become capable of triggering an autoimmune disease later on.The thymus gland aids in the development of lymphocytes necessary to protect the young from disease. It reaches is maximum development at puberty and as we age it slowly shrinks, causing a subsequent decline in immunity. Until recently this shrinkage was thought to be a normal aspect of ageing. It is now known that shrinkage of the thymus is not inevitable and can be reversable. See Immune Recovery Programs . The other lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow and become B-lymphocytes and then spend their life in the Lymphatic system . See picture of Lymph Nodes for location of where Thymus would be.

Greek - thymos = a warty unnatural growth (referring to the fact that it can have no function in adults).

Noun: An important gland in the neck of all animals with a backbone, near the upper windpipe, that affects growth and helps regulate the body's energy and calcium levels. If you are deficient in the hormones produced by the thyroid gland, the symptoms include tiredness, dry skin, hair loss, weight gain, constipation and sensitivity to cold. If the thyroid is producing too many of it's hormones, the symptoms are fatigue, anxiety, palpitations, sweating, weight loss, diarrhoea, and intolerance of heat.

Greek - thyreoeides = shield-shaped
Latin - glandis = acorn

Noun: See T-cell

Noun: An iron bearing protein within the fluid of the blood.

Latin - trans = across +
Latin - ferrum = iron

Noun: The transfer of blood from one person or animal to another. After a number of transfusions there can be some adverse reactions including fever, chills and some allergic reactions such as itching and hives. Severe transfusion reactions due to infusion of incompatible red blood cells, may cause shortness of breath, back pain low blood pressure, and decreased urine output. Drugs can be used to both treat or to prevent recurrent transfusion reactions.

Latin - trans = across +
Latin - fundere = to pour

Noun: A protein that is produced by monocytes and macrophages in response to poisons (which are produced and retained within a bacterium) which are released after the destruction of the bacterial cell. The protein activates white blood cells and has anticancer activity. There is evidence that the continued production of these proteins activating the T cells can result in aplastic anaemia .

Latin - tumere = to swell +
Greek - nekrós = dead body +
Latin - facere = make, do

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