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Nutritional problems in cancer patients

Publié par happy-diet samedi 15 mai 2010

Nutritional problems in cancer patients

Nutritional supplements can reduce symptoms and even slow growth  in the process.
Introduction

Suffering of cancer patients in an ongoing problem of access to adequate nutrition and necessary, and Malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies of the major factors that cause progression of the disease and deaths have, and result in malnutrition, while the body can not get only very small amounts of nutrients necessary for the performance vital functions, which leads naturally to continue wasting and weakness and physical exhaustion, and poor ability to resist infection, and inability to meet the different treatments, and lack of biological processes, and then caused the deaths.
And is a loss of appetite for food (Anorexia) of the common symptoms in patients with cancer, and may appear in the early stages before diagnosis, or later following the spread of the tumor and exacerbated by, or during the treatments, and is considered one of the main reasons for malnutrition, and deterioration of the patients .

And is the loss of nutrients (Cachexia) or wasting, and the symptoms atrophy physical that shows clearly through the continuing loss of weight and fat and muscle atrophy, symptoms of syndrome of malnutrition, and not wasting a relationship type of the tumor or its size or extent of spread, and is not considered, such as hunger, as the body proper adjustment when the hunger to reduce its consumption of nutrients, while the body can not in patients with cancer of adjustment and control the use of nutrients that are being addressed, and that such a loss that may arise in patients who are fed well and have adequate levels of nutrition, However, the body can not absorb nutrients the natural way.

And is usually determine acute malnutrition to one of two ways: increasing danger of exacerbation of the disease and the occurrence of death, or the amount of weight lost during a specific time period.

In the following paragraphs we review the About the causes of failure and malnutrition and methods of treatment and management.

Causes of failure and malnutrition

The effects of tumor

Produces many of the problems of inadequate and malnutrition direct influence of the tumor itself, such as the growth of tumors, stomach or Palmre or intestines, causing blockages different or nausea and vomiting, or poor digestion and slow processes and digestive systems, and inadequate absorption of nutrients, and can be of tumors of the ovaries or genital organs or urinary tract causing an edema and excessive presence of fluid abdominal, leading to a sense of early satiety and imbalance of fluid body, and tumors of the central nervous system, such as brain tumors, in turn can cause mental confusion and drowsiness lasting, and may lose Patients interested in eating, or forget to even eat the meals, and on the other grievances resulting from tumors in turn lead to loss of appetite completely, and low quantities of food and fluid intake.

On the other hand exacerbate the changes in various metabolic processes in turn, nutrition problems, as the tumor cells convert nutrients to energy in different ways, less effective and useful ways of healthy cells, as they produce vehicles and various chemicals in turn cause loss of appetite and loss of nutrients, and for example, produces a material impact on the effective sense of taste and the taste of things change when the patient, preventing him from eating, as well as they produce various hormones can change some of the critical systems, such as controlling the amount of food intake, or methods of absorption or ways to take advantage of the body, and some tumors affect the brain's nerve receptors such as those governing the work of stomach, for example.



The effects of various treatments for tumors

Treatments cause tumors in the problems of feeding, the impact may be direct, such as reduced absorption of protein and fat following the types of surgery, or indirectly, such as the need for more power after exposure to infection and fever.
And the following paragraphs an overview of the effects of treatments for tumors:

Surgery

Surgery may result in neck and head to the complexities of operations in chewing and swallowing, or to mental stress and nervous tissue due to the loss that has been eradicated, and surgery may lead to the inability of the esophagus and stomach deficiencies in the absorption of fat, and stomach surgery lead to inadequate and poor absorption of protein and fat, and the emergence of symptoms of rapid emptying of the stomach, and low blood sugar level, and the feeling of early satiety, while the pancreatic surgery often to poor absorption of proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals, and the emergence of diabetes, and surgery colon and small intestine As it leads to inadequate absorption of proteins and fat and lack of vitamins and minerals, also cause severe diarrhea and fluid loss.

And in general include the side effects associated with surgery and affecting the nutrition, the risk of infection and the occurrence of various fistulae (Ktqhob between two or between a member and the surface of the body), or the emergence of short-gut bug.

Chemotherapy

Cause some of the drugs used in chemotherapy directly to the loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and mouth sores and infections, as well as changes in taste and taste, and the occurrence of infection, and various infections, it is the symptoms that affect the nutrition and lasts for more than two weeks are particularly dangerous, and, of course, depends the severity of these symptoms and the pattern repeated on the type of drug chemotherapy and doses received, and medication support and associated with chemotherapy, and on the other hand increase the complexities of nutrition at the emergence of fever and continue for periods of time elongated, with more fever from the need to more calories than the body.

Radiotherapy

The usual cause of radiotherapy to the head and neck, loss of appetite, changes in taste and taste, and inflammation and dryness of the mouth and gums, and sores and difficulties Balbla, in addition to cramps and spasms, jaws, and infections or infections of different, but radiation-Sadr, may cause infection of the esophagus or converting to flow opposite to the contents of the stomach, in addition to nausea and vomiting and difficulty swallowing, while others may cause the radiation to the abdomen or pelvis diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and inflammation of the intestine and rectum, a fistula, in addition to radiation therapy cause fatigue and fatigue than they lose appetite and desire for food, and often result in complications, which persist for a long time to narrow the intestine and the emergence of chronic inflammation, in addition to the lack of absorption of food, or the emergence of the digestive canal blockages.

Immunotherapy

May cause various immune therapies, such as dynamic response rates (Biologicalresponsemodifiers), fever and fatigue and physical exhaustion, leading to a loss of appetite, and the growing need for protein and calories.


Mental and social impacts

, Eating food from the social activities the task, and while losing the patient's appetite and liked the food becomes prone to isolation, and not be able to participate with others in meals of different, in addition to several factors mental, psychological, and different emotions affect his desires for food, such as frustration, depression and anxiety and fear or anger, and feelings that are normal, and the sense of loss of control, life and disability in patients blind appetite completely, and may be refused to eat even with the hope of all patients in some way a sense of the disposition of their lives , with the sense of their inability to refuse treatments or to protest their situation.

Also contribute to the patient's previous experiences with some types of food to the problem, such as suffering nausea or vomiting when dealing with a particular type, making the patient refuses a particular kind in the future, and the cancer diagnosis, turn a person's life completely, including dietary habits, and may not usual food is available in the hospital, for example, or can not be accepted with the treatments, for example, may not accept the person who used to hot and spicy foods, to deal with non-spicy foods, and therefore deals with the little ones, and that changes the taste of food the patient lose his desire to eat, and of course Whenever less than the amount of food covered by the cancer patient more vulnerable body and weaken its ability to resist disease, and certainly that would further exacerbate the cancer and its complications.



Assessing the nutritional status of the patient

Is the health history and physical examination of the patient of the most important factors in determining nutritional status, and include this evaluation necessarily date changes weight, and any changes in eating and drinking, and symptoms affecting the nutrition of the various, which include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea or constipation, and inflammation and dryness of the mouth, and changes of smell and taste, and pain, also includes the evaluation of drugs that affect the nutrition and operations of the body's use of nutrients, as well as other diseases that may affect nutrition, in turn, in addition to the performance level of the body the patient's functions, and should investigate the patient for changes in diet and drink than is normal for him, and the period which lasts where these changes should also investigate the physical examination for the loss of weight and loss of subcutaneous fat and muscle atrophy, and fluid build-up in the legs, and on the extent of any swelling.

And which will help greatly in addressing the nutritional problems that are investigating the extent of the desire of the patient's food, and eat what he likes and what he hates and sensitivity to certain foods, and thus the order of the appropriate diet to assist it in various stages of treatment.

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