A new study to understand how to organize the walk

Publié par happy-diet dimanche 16 mai 2010

A new study to understand how to organize the walk

If you want my latest animation tutorials, you can find them all here:

Lesson 2: The Walk Cycle part 1

Most sane people have a fear of animating walk cycles. Many events are happening at the same time, and it can seem overwhelming. A single mistake on your first drawing can wreck the rest of the scene. However, the process can be broken down into a series of steps which can go some distance in simplifying the process.

A walk cycle can be described by four distinct poses:


Now, researchers tested a new technique to distinguish nerves in the spinal cord, which control the successive steps to the right and left through the process of walking. The researchers found the results made them a few steps from a full understanding of the neurological department that coordinates movements of walking, which will be very important in the development of new treatments for patients with paralysis.

According to researchers doing, the use of this technology will increase our knowledge of genetic networks from specialized nerves in the spinal cord, and thus our knowledge of the Department of neurons responsible for movement in the spinal cord. In addition, a good understanding of this theme will have a crucial role in developing new plans to restore motor functions are disrupted due to the paralysis as a result of injury or disease of the spinal cord.

Researchers working on the definition of these nerves and thus create the applications that can be useful in the definition of the inner circle in the spinal cord, which is responsible for other processes such as breathing, as well as other involuntary movements do not fall within the scope of the work of the brain.

Dissemination of the research team led by Martin d Kulding of the Salk Institute for Studies House, and Thomas M Schuessel from Columbia University, research in the Journal of the nerves (Neuron), aim of this research according to Kulding: "to the definition of the nerves that enter the circle called" the engine of a centralized model (Central pattern generators), which generate signals of movement coordinated left - right and that makes walking possible ", and then complete as saying:" Of course, the people know that nerves driving in this circuit leads to work the muscles, but no one knows what the nerves of Interior located within the motor neurons, responsible for organizing the walk coordinated. "Then he adds:" Previous anatomical studies did not provide any particles or important functions that can run on the internal characteristic of this nerve. "

In previous studies, involving Alsandra Birane Laboratory Schuessel, said that a group process of the nerves of the Interior, called the nerves in the internal or (VO), you need to key gene called db x one (Dbx1), to develop the effectiveness of these nerves. Such key genetic factors, also called the back (Tran - SS - ion Factors), the effectiveness of the control set of genes during the period of its composition and specialization in the fetus.

Also noted Bernie and her colleagues Extension anatomy of such nerves that holds the key genetic db x one (Dbx1), in the spinal cord of a mouse, and show these nerves extension on one side of the spinal cord at the same time express to the other side of the spinal cord associated with nerve motor. Bernie learned that such a panel extension of this distinction circuit that controls the effectiveness of the internal engine of the process of walking right - left.

Goulding and his colleagues are trying to discover is that the nerves such as in the internal or (VO), are genuinely involved in the birth of a centralized model controlled harmony walking left and right? Through studies Alilktruozivip Electrophysiological, the spinal cords of rats. They found that, as long as it is a normal spinal cords show the effectiveness of e-perfect by the motor neurons for the consistency of the movement of walking right - left. As for genetically modified mice that have lost the key gene-de-Paix and one X (Dbx1) showed abnormal movements when the stimulus. This form is not normal for movements would be characteristic of the uncoordinated walk (ataxia), in the case of mice that have suffered from genetic mutation in the X-de-Paix and one.

According to the research and Kulding Schuessel, the discussion of the birth of a centralized model system will provide design values to understand the mechanism work the inner circle of the spinal cord. Kulding say in this area: "There are few systems that we hope our understanding of it to learn how the components of the circuit can generate some semblance of movement, will enable us to reach a full understanding of this system."

Schuessel see that this is the beginning of what is known as the great harvest of new knowledge through the use of this area. He says that the use of gene technology will recognize this at the outset the interior of the nerve or type in (VO) only, which will be the beginning of what Sitafra techniques will work on the definition of special materials in the nerves in the brain and spinal cord. Complete Schuessel says: "We believe that there Doz different groups of neurons of the Interior, which each group-identified genetic independent, in such case, there is one of these groups can make particles flow in order to repair these nerves, and usually include such reforms subsets of neurons specialized non-effective, it is through the use of transcription factors characteristic of effective change or the introduction of materials to put out the fire, which make them ineffective, or even killed. " Then continued: "With the suppression of these techniques, for example, you can analyze the behavior of internal mobility when these nerves are effective, and comparing them by making these nerves inert, ineffective, and note the changes, and then returns its effectiveness again."

These techniques may help the tariff and reform, scientists on the development of clinical medical plans to restart the spinal cord. Says Schuessel in this area: "Part of the problem of re mobility in patients with injured spinal cord is how to re-establish the link between the brain and spinal cord, in addition to another part of it is very important to access a sufficient understanding of traffic regulations in the spinal cord, which leads to a good understanding of the achievement or output process of re-run of the links below to perform the tasks properly. " Then he adds: "This technology is a small step towards the knowledge of the concept of control nerves interior of the spinal cord, when you realize this concept, we will have a basis in how to maintain spinal cord shattered by restarting the nerves of the Interior and thus restoring the basic function of the spinal cord."

Techniques will enable researchers to profile the genetic distinction between the types of nerves that have an impact on the models of the spinal cords of infected animals at the laboratory, and the task to restart the functions of the spinal cord. Schuessel concludes saying: "Perhaps this knowledge will enable us to develop plans to choose places to focus on re-growth of some vehicles, the central core of the spinal cord injured, and therefore give less attention to the cells the least important."

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