Publié par happy-diet mardi 11 mai 2010

What is epilepsy?
Convulsions (Seizure) is a temporary shift occurs suddenly due to the increased electrical activity of brain cells. When seizures recur chronically - regardless of the time period between the Nuba and the other - it is called epilepsy.

In a study to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it was found that 0.654% of the community infected with the disease.
This percentage is close to the prevalence of epilepsy according to the statistics Bank 0.5%. According to the statistics Bank, 2-5% of people suffer a heart spasm once at least in their lives. It also found that the incidence in industrialized countries is lower than in developing countries.
Mortality rate when infected with the disease increases for four main reasons: suicide because of depression caused by the disease, the status of ongoing epilepsy, injuries during a seizure, and sudden death.


Epileptic seizures are divided into three main sections: the generalized epilepsy (year), partial epilepsy, and epilepsy workbook (other).

First: generalized epilepsy (Generalized Seizures)

Occurs due to increased electrical activity in all brain cells. For epilepsy and is characterized by partial loss of awareness of the injured during the seizure. And falls under the generalized epilepsy, the following types of reactions: -

1 - cramping Alrmai Tonic (Tonic Clonic Seizures): and also known as (Garnd Mal)
This type of species most widespread and famous. Begin the episode, when many people or people with a strange feeling (Aura) felt that the shift will start now and may scream or cry victim. Then, begin to shift the first phase: the stage of spasticity or stiffness Tonic (Tonic Phase). Patient loses consciousness and falls to the ground - and here injuries usually occur - and then solidifies or Itkhcb body for a period of minutes. Patient may bite his tongue and had a bowel movement or urinate uncontrollably. Then start the second phase: the phase cramping Alrmai (Clonic Phase) and at this stage occurs concussion or trembling of the Parties. And be a companion to this stage of foam out of the mouth. This phase may continue for a few minutes followed by a deep sleep may continue to half an hour or more.

2 - Cheng coma: (Absence Seizure) and known as the (Petit Mal) and is also called (b epilepsy Sarhan).
And this type occurs generally in children. In this shift, depending on patient activity, which was practiced and stared for a period of time and have little jerk in the light of the Parties. It may seem to others as if in the case of Sirhan, but in fact, be patient unconscious during the seizure. Then complete patient activity, which was exercised after the cessation of the Nuba directly without going to sleep as it happens in a fit of convulsions Alrmai Tonic. And continue the episode for a few seconds, making it difficult in many cases, the parents noticed, and are usually observable by teachers and as teachers complain to parents that their child many Sarhan in the chapter.
Divided into convulsions coma and non-typical model, which distinguishes it shows the model chaos in the planning of electric brain electrical impulses frequency 3 Hz. In addition, the Kalouram injuries and strokes and others do not cause coma model ever. And have found that many studies of children with disruptive coma Model infected Tonic spasm Alrmai later.

3 - muscle cramping Alrmai (Myoclonic Seizure) and is just an isolated muscle tremors

4 - cramping Tonic (Tonic Seizure), where it solidifies the body without any tremors

5 - cramping Allamqoi (Atonic Seizure) sag where the body is injured and unconscious

II: partial epilepsy (Partial Seizures) and also called the focal spasm (Focal Seizures)

Occurs due to increased electrical activity in certain brain cells in a specific area of the brain. The start of this type of partial seizures and then spread to all the cells of the brain and heart become partial to the tension stiffening is called a generalized this type of convulsions Name:

(Partial convulsions with secondary circulate - Partial seizure with secondary generalization)

Partial epilepsy and is divided into two sections: -

1 - simple partial epilepsy (Simple Partial Seizure)

The disruption of electrical activity in a specific area of the brain with non-proliferation without losing the injured and consciousness is one of the advantages of this type. And depending on the region have this type of cramping. For example, if this activity in the area of movement of the right hand, shaking the right hand. And if in the area of speech patient loses the ability to speak. And if in the sense of losing the ability to sense in the affected area and so on.

The disruption of electrical activity in a specific area of the brain with non-proliferation without losing the injured and consciousness is one of the advantages of this type. And depending on the region have this type of cramping. For example, if this activity in the area of movement of the right hand, shaking the right hand. And if in the area of speech patient loses the ability to speak. And if in the sense of losing the ability to sense in the affected area and so on.

Of the most famous example of this type: -

* Convulsions or motor events (Jacksonian Seizures) and in this type of convulsions, increased electrical activity in the cerebral cortex in the anterior frontal region responsible for motor function (Frontal lobe). Setting off tremors in the area of the mouth or hand and then spread to the arm, but the lower limbs, and even without awareness of the absence of the injured. This only happens to tremors in the opposite direction for separating the injured brain. If disturbed the activity of the right lobe of the brain appeared tremors in the left half of the body and vice versa.

* Somatic sensory events Huasip. When a seizure in the temporal cortex (Temporal lobe) may feel dizzy, sudden injured, or hallucinations, and may not recognize things or people or places to see in spite of its repeated (Jamais vu) and others.

* And other species, such as: the presence of strange odors, hearing strange noises, as a vision of an imbalance in the sizes of objects other than natural. And may appear in some cases rash that develops within, or bouts of nausea.

2 - complex partial epilepsy or complex (Complex Partial Seizures)

This type is characterized by disorder, awareness of the patient. And the patient may appear conscious, but he does not react with the external environment has been acting a spontaneous (Automatism) just as happens to some when he talks or walks in sleep, or even open his eyes. And interesting in both cases (epilepsy, sleep and complex) is that the person may not remember what he was doing through it.

We have found that 80% of cases of complex partial epilepsy occur in the temporal cortex (Temporal lobe). Even minor seizures that affect temporal cortex of the brain may develop into a complex shifts Vidtrb a result awareness of the patient.

* The seizure partial complex and well-known classic - so to speak - which occur in an area temporal to start Pthdik person and disturbed consciousness and then after the actions and movements automatic random (Automatism) and the most famous: trembling lips, chewing without food in the mouth, swallowing and continuous suction. And of movements that may also occur: tampering with things around and messing his clothes, and may twist his hand or pat his hand repeatedly. And may follow the patient activity, which was practiced by eating, or walking, or drawing, but a bad way and not nicely. We have found that some patients react somewhat with the external environment during the Nuba, but this response remains a stranger. And continue this shift to approximately ninety seconds, and then enters the patient then in a state of confusion or confusion is difficult to differentiate between them and the seizure only through the planning of brain electrical

Third: Epilepsy-seeded

, Which enters the convulsions that do not fall under any of the generalized or partial.

- Epilepsy may be part of the syndrome syndromic West, and Lennox Gastaut syndrome

Imaging radiation for patients with epilepsy,

Techniques used in imaging patients with epilepsy:


The X-ray tomography of the first methods used to portray patients with epilepsy, and is still currently being used in imaging patients with epilepsy in the absence of advanced systems.

2 - Magnatic Resonace Imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):

Is one of the most important imaging methods used in the case of epilepsy,

Magnetic resonance imaging on the symptoms syndrome with epilepsy Kalichohat structural and tumors.

* Epilepsy patients who: suffer from epileptic seizures do not respond to anti-epileptic drugs
3-FUNCTIONAL Magnatic Resonace Imaging functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI):

Alone "functional magnetic resonance imaging" is capable of imaging changes of building-related epilepsy, we which to find out how much the (hippocampal) missing, which relates to direct contact with seizures occurring, as well as this kind of photography, improve and increase the possibility of studying the disease in minutes more sensitive than MRI magnetic resonance imaging alone.

* There are also new technologies used in the X-ray for patients with epilepsy, including:

4-Magnatic Resonace Spectroscopy magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS):

5 - single photon emission computed temography (SPECT) Photon radiation CT

Is one of the most important methods used in the X-ray for patients with epilepsy, is used to detect the deficit in blood flow in blood vessels in the brain
Amlipaltsoer used in different radioactive elements such as xenon (1333) and technetium (99) and iodine (123) and Emaar Aletilha half longer than those used in the prior art above. As it fires a ray and gamma one instead of two beams, as in PET)) technology provides (SPECT) information about blood flow Mnkhalal photos taken with this technology often be less information, but they are Aqbakthir of those taken by (PET) and the whereabouts of the devices, which are those Altguenipmtofferp more because it does not require its presence close to the nuclear accelerators.

6 - Positron Emission Temographt (PET) positron radiation class:

Can be using the technique of radiation positron class (PET) to obtain a picture of the brain by picking up radiation comes from radioactive material is injected into the patient's body and that are either C ¹ ¹,,, N ¹ ³, and all these elements of radioactive materials have a half-life is very short. Are obtained on this radioactive material by shedding neutrons accelerated atoms of these elements to become radioactive and the short period of time. When injection of the human body that radioactive elements processed by the accelerator Alsichaeltron spews particles called the positron and the positron is an elementary particle has the same mass of the electron, but carries a positive charge. Positron particle combine with the positive electron in the human body and stems of this Union Votonin each photon is a gamma ray, which is used to get the picture.

* When the power device (EEG) Elektroencephalographie electric scheme of the brain, radiation technology is the Photon Tomography SPECT, and positron radiation technology class of the PET technology more sensitive and accurate in showing the "" temporal lobe epilepsy

Temporal lobe of the brain.

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